DMAIC It is a problem solving methodology used very often and also as normal part
of a KAIZEN project. The word comes from the initial letter of the words denoting
the following actions:
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control
Define the team, the team leader, what is the problem or current situation, what
improvements are required, define dates for accomplishment, the resources required
(money, human resources, technology), the Return On Investment ROI and gets management
approval. In other words a Project Charter document is required.
What is a Project Charter?A Project Charter is a document that defines and makes
official the most important aspect of the project. The Project Charter is a common
ground and simple communication tool, it is the “Magna Carta” of the project and
as such needs to be approved by the upper Management and Direction.
See Project Charter Sample
Fully understand the actual state, quantify and measure all key parameters, elements
and deliverables to be improved.
1- These parameters and deliverables need to be tangible and measurable.
2- Set the inputs and outputs of the process. To what stimulus correspond what response
and in what proportion, what are the processes involved.
3- Confirm and validate the measurements concerning repeatability and sufficiency
4- Organize and tabulate the measurements in such way that will be easy to understand
and manipulate for analysis. Example: Number of customers complaint calls, number
or percent of returned products, number of defective units on a specific production
area per unit of time or period, process time.
5- Evaluate the process capability and perform a value stream mapping of the current
state listing obvious problems, bottle necks and road blocks. Tag these as opportunities
2- Analyze the data. Look for trends, anomalies, discontinuities etc.
3- Analyze the process flow (Compare process efficiency against the best benchmarks
in the industry)
4- Perform a value analysis of the process and separate value added and no value
added “works” functions and activities, plus no valued added activities but necessary
such as QC inspection, filing and recording documentation, etc
5- Find root causes, use some of the problems solution tools already explained such
The 5 Why’s , The 4 M’s +1, The 4W’s +H+W
6- Rank root causes from more to less important use FMEA and other problem solving
7- Make conclusions and rank solutions based on importance weight and time urgency
1- Based on the analysis performed, rank areas for improvement in accordance to the
impacts that can be the most important for the organization
2- Select the potential solutions
3- Make use of Lean Manufacturing tools such as Six Sigma (Statistical Process Control,
Value Stream Mapping, Kanban System etc.)
4- Evaluate risk potential and confirm corrective actions effectiveness
5- Implement pilot runs and make corrections if necessary
6- Deploy and inform improvements results company wide. Train all personnel that
will be involved but were not part of the main team
7- Implement improvements at full range and follow up on project transition to the
final owner of the process.
8- Document improvements and changes, maintain a “Before and After Changes Results”
Now that all these improvements have been carried out the main task will be to maintain
and control what has been achieved.
1- Establish metrics control by mean of tables and charts for all key indicators
with variations in time, quantity and percent against the given targets.
2- Establish standard operating procedures
3- Establish standard inspection and verification procedures, including audits.
4- Deploy results and project information center visible to all parties involved,
score boards etc.
5- Implement corrective actions procedures and process maintenance committee